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We should hardly need to add, however, that it must always be perfectly clear what a pronoun refers to.If my reader cannot instantly know what this is, then my sentence is ambiguous and misleading.
In fact, it's a good idea to assume not only that your readers need all the information that you have and need to know how you arrived at the point you're at, but also that they are not quite as quick as you are.
You might be able to leap from one side of the stream to the other; believe that your readers need some stepping stones and be sure to place them in readily accessible and visible spots.
There are four basic mechanical considerations in providing transitions between ideas: using transitional expressions, repeating key words and phrases, using pronoun reference, and using parallel form.
Transitional tags run the gamut from the most simple the little conjunctions: and, but, nor, for, yet, or, (and sometimes) so to more complex signals that ideas are somehow connected the conjunctive adverbs and transitional expressions such as however, moreover, nevertheless, on the other hand.
Example: "Attention, passengers: At the present time, the subway is delayed because of a signal issue at the Ashmont station." Use these connecting words and phrases to summarize ideas and concepts, convey conclusions to readers, or restate particular ideas and concepts.
Example: "Generally speaking, commuting into the city usually takes me an hour, except on rainy or snowy days, when it can take as many as 3 hours to get to work." This group of linking words and phrases will help illustrate, add more information, and provide examples for readers.(For that same reason, there is no point in trying to memorize this vast list.) On the other hand, if you can read your entire essay and discover none of these transitional devices, then you must wonder what, if anything, is holding your ideas together.Practice by inserting a tentative however, nevertheless, consequently.Successful writers use transition words and phrases in both fiction and non-fiction works - research papers, essays, stories, narratives, and other prose types directly benefit from these important writing constructs.Use this list of 100 transitional words and phrases for instances where you need to provide comparison/contrast, summarization, conclusion, or to indicate more information.Restrictions against beginning a sentence with and or but are based on shaky grammatical foundations; some of the most influential writers in the language have been happily ignoring such restrictions for centuries.* Here is a chart of the transitional devices (also called conjunctive adverbs or adverbial conjunctions) accompanied with a simplified definition of function (note that some devices appear with more than one definition): although, and yet, at the same time, but at the same time, despite that, even so, even though, for all that, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead, nevertheless, notwithstanding, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, regardless, still, though, yetafter all, as an illustration, even, for example, for instance, in conclusion, indeed, in fact, in other words, in short, it is true, of course, namely, specifically, that is, to illustrate, thus, trulyall in all, altogether, as has been said, finally, in brief, in conclusion, in other words, in particular, in short, in simpler terms, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to put it differently, to summarizeafter a while, afterward, again, also, and then, as long as, at last, at length, at that time, before, besides, earlier, eventually, finally, formerly, further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, in the past, last, lately, meanwhile, moreover, next, now, presently, second, shortly, simultaneously, since, so far, soon, still, subsequently, then, thereafter, too, until, until now, when Do not interlard your text with transitional expressions merely because you know these devices connect ideas.They must appear, naturally, where they belong, or they'll stick like a fishbone in your reader's craw.Unless it is overworked and obtrusive, repetition lends itself to a sense of coherence (or at least to the illusion of coherence).Remember Lincoln's advice: In fact, you can't forget Lincoln's advice, because it has become part of the music of our language.Example: "Needing to gain only 2 yards for a critical first down, the coach was faced with going for it or kicking the ball away. Moreover, the quarterback hadn't thrown an incomplete pass all game." Use these transition words and phrases to point out differences in ideas, or suggest to the reader that there are alternative ideas to consider.Example: "The coach decided to go for it on 4th down, albeit with a very simple quarterback sneak." Convey a sequence of events or the structure and limits of time with these transition words.