Such spiritual beliefs in the Lower Songkhram River Basin supported the indigenous people to continue conserving the natural resources in their territory.
In addition, property rights granted to indigenous people also contribute to the conservation of natural resources.
In Chiang Mai (Thailand), Lua people were the first settlers in the Chiang Mai Valley over 1300 years ago .
Today they are embraced by the northern part of Thailand in the villages along the Thongchai Mountain .
Indigenous people in some parts of the globe are entitled to specific rights to collectively use and manage natural resources, predicated on their historical, social and cultural connection to a particular territory.
The United Nations (UN) defines indigenous people as people being inheritors and practitioners of unique cultures and ways of relating to people and the environment.Similarly, in Bangladesh, wildlife species such as the Black Soft-shell Turtle, Mugger Crocodile, Rock Pigeon and Rhesus Macaque have been protected for some generations because of local beliefs .In some rural communities in Africa, natural resources were not only important as a source of food and other domestic products, but were the basis of cultural beliefs and, therefore, certain areas such as woodlands, water, and mountains were not to be abused and were considered sacred .Another example of indigenous peoples’ practices is the use of beliefs in totems for managing the natural resources and conserving flora and fauna by the Ba’Aka pygmies of Central Africa.They believe that killing totems for food would bring a negative impact to their well-being.Access to any sacred forests in Ashanti communities is governed by strict customs, which include the practice of rituals and sacrifices before obtaining the permission to harvest certain tree species.These practices could protect forest biodiversity and watersheds, certify existing forests, and prevent Ashanti people from overexploiting resources, resulting in better conservation of their forests [12,13].In addition, as some parts of rivers or streams and forests are considered sacred, and fishing and hunting are forbidden unless special rituals are to be performed .Traditional practices in Ba’Aka demonstrate the existence of traditional strategies by indigenous people for conserving natural resources in some African communities.A number of peer-reviewed studies, including a focus on north-east Thailand , support this premise.Notably, establishing a direct correlation between the superior or inferior environmental state of wetlands and the existence of strong or weak communal spirituality is almost impossible, so indirectly achieving the objective through several avenues of innovative research by linking the spiritual domain and the material world is a product of numerous incremental approaches.