Nubia was divided into three major regions: Upper, Middle, and Lower Nubia, in reference to their locations along the Nile.
Lower refers to regions downstream and upper refers to regions upstream.
Nubia was again united with the Khedivate of Egypt in the 19th century.
Today, the region of Nubia is split between Egypt and Sudan.
Based on a 1998 excavation report, Jane Roy has written that "At the time of Williams' argument, the Qustul cemetery and the 'royal' iconography found there was dated to the Naqada IIIA period, thus antedating royal cemeteries in Egypt of the Naqada IIIB phase.
New evidence from Abydos, however, particularly the excavation of Cemetery U and the tome U-j, dating to Naqada IIIA has shown that this iconography appears earlier in Egypt." Around the turn of the protodynastic period, Naqada, in its bid to conquer and unify the whole Nile Valley, seems to have conquered Ta-Seti (the kingdom where Qustul was located) and harmonized it with the Egyptian state. At the time of the first dynasty, the A-Group area seems to have been entirely depopulated, most likely due to immigration to areas west and south.
Lower Nubia lies between the First and the Second Cataracts, within the current borders of Egypt.
Middle Nubia lies between the Second and the Third Cataracts. Modern scholars typically refer to the people from this area as the "A-Group" culture.
This trade is testified archaeologically by large amounts of Egyptian commodities deposited in the graves of the A-Group people.
The imports consisted of gold objects, copper tools, faience amulets and beads, seals, slate palettes, stone vessels, and a variety of pots.