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Ennis asserts that to help students develop critical thinking skills, teachers must understand the cognitive processes that constitute critical thinking and use instructional activities that will develop these processes.He recommends instructors teach students how to define and clarify information, ask appropriate questions to clarify or challenge statements or beliefs, judge the credibility of sources, and solve problems by predicting probable outcomes through logic or deduction.Ennis also suggests that critical thinkers demonstrate particular attributes.
He also suggested that because critical thinkers possess curiosity and skepticism, they are more likely to be motivated to provide solutions that resolve contradictions.
For a number of years, dental educators thought teaching problem-solving skills was akin to teaching critical thinking skills.
Performance components refer to the actual steps taken or strategies used, while knowledge-acquisition strategies refer to the ways in which individuals relate old to new material and apply new material.
Sternberg does not specify a "how" approach to teaching and learning critical thinking skills.
He postulates that there are three mental processes fostering critical thinking: meta-components, performance components, and knowledge-acquisition strategies.
Strategies Of Critical Thinking French Phrases Essay Writing
Meta-components refer to higher-order mental processes that individuals use to plan, monitor, and evaluate what they do.
Lipman, like Sternberg, does not specify a "how to" approach.
However, he makes clear distinctions between ordinary thinking and critical thinking.
He explains that ordinary thinking is simplistic thinking because it does not rely upon the use of standards or criteria.
Examples of ordinary thinking are guessing, believing, and supposing.