In a literary analysis paper, for example, you”ll want to quote from the literary text rather than summarize, because part of your task in this kind of paper is to analyze the specific words and phrases an author uses.
In research papers, you should quote from a source If you find that you can’t do A or B, this may mean that you don’t understand the passage completely or that you need to use a more structured process until you have more experience in paraphrasing.
Critical care nurses function in a hierarchy of roles.
In this open heart surgery unit, the nurse manager hires and fires the nursing personnel. Staff nurses are assigned to patients to provide all their nursing care. 156) Notice that the writer has not only “borrowed” Chase’s material (the results of her research) with no acknowledgment, but has also largely maintained the author’s method of expression and sentence structure.
The clinical nurse specialist in this unit is mostly involved with formal teaching in orienting new staff. The experts — the nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist — are not involved directly in patient care.
The nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist are the designated experts. The resource nurse is seen as both a caregiver and a resource to other caregivers. The staff nurses, in contrast, This paraphrase is a patchwork composed of pieces in the original author’s language (in red) and pieces in the student-writer’s words, all rearranged into a new pattern, but with none of the borrowed pieces in quotation marks.Thus, even though the writer acknowledges the source of the material, the underlined phrases are falsely presented as the student’s own.In her study of the roles of nurses in a critical care unit, Chase (1995) also found a hierarchy that distinguished the roles of experts and others.Remember: Only the words that the person says should be inside the quotation.Here are two more common dialogue mistakes to avoid.The nurse manager does not directly care for patients but follows the progress of unusual or long-term patients. The phrases in red are directly copied from the source or changed only slightly in form.On each shift a nurse assumes the role of resource nurse. Even if the student-writer had acknowledged Chase as the source of the content, the language of the passage would be considered plagiarized because no quotation marks indicate the phrases that come directly from Chase.This person oversees the hour-by-hour functioning of the unit as a whole, such as considering expected admissions and discharges of patients, ascertaining that beds are available for patients in the operating room, and covering sick calls. They are the most experienced of all the staff nurses. And if quotation marks did appear around all these phrases, this paragraph would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable.The nurse clinician has a separate job description and provides for quality of care by orienting new staff, developing unit policies, and providing direct support where needed, such as assisting in emergency situations. at the top and the least senior staff nurses at the bottom.For instance, you may not need to cite a reference to Piaget’s developmental stages in a paper for an education class or give a source for your description of a commonly used method in a biology report—but you must be sure that this information is so widely known within that field that it will be shared by your readers. And in the case of both general and field-specific common knowledge, if you use the exact words of the reference source, you must use quotation marks and credit the source.In general, use direct quotations only if you have a good reason. Also, it’s often conventional to quote more extensively from sources when you’re writing a humanities paper, and to summarize from sources when you’re writing in the social or natural sciences–but there are always exceptions.