At that time, the act of publishing academic inquiry was controversial and widely ridiculed. Merton, a sociologist, found that 92% of cases of simultaneous discovery in the 17th century ended in dispute.
It was not at all unusual for a new discovery to be announced as an anagram, reserving priority for the discoverer, but indecipherable for anyone not in on the secret: both Isaac Newton and Leibniz used this approach. The number of disputes dropped to 72% in the 18th century, 59% by the latter half of the 19th century, and 33% by the first half of the 20th century.
Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship.
Most academic work is published in academic journal article, book or thesis form.
The part of academic written output that is not formally published but merely printed up or posted on the Internet is often called "grey literature".
Most scientific and scholarly journals, and many academic and scholarly books, though not all, are based on some form of peer review or editorial refereeing to qualify texts for publication.Early scientific journals embraced several models: some were run by a single individual who exerted editorial control over the contents, often simply publishing extracts from colleagues' letters, while others employed a group decision making process, more closely aligned to modern peer review.It wasn't until the middle of the 20th century that peer review became the standard.This is particularly true for the most popular journals where the number of accepted articles often outnumbers the space for printing.Due to this, many academics self-archive a 'pre-print' copy of their paper for free download from their personal or institutional website.The Journal des sçavans (later spelled Journal des savants), established by Denis de Sallo, was the earliest academic journal published in Europe.Its content included obituaries of famous men, church history, and legal reports.The humanities have been particularly affected by the pressure on university publishers, which are less able to publish monographs when libraries can not afford to purchase them.For example, the ARL found that in "1986, libraries spent 44% of their budgets on books compared with 56% on journals; twelve years later, the ratio had skewed to 28% and 72%." In addition, experts have suggested measures to make the publication process more efficient in disseminating new and important findings by evaluating the worthiness of publication on the basis of the significance and novelty of the research finding.Since the early 1990s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common.An important trend, particularly with respect to journals in the sciences, is open access via the Internet.