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Born on May 19, 1925, in Omaha, Nebraska, as Malcolm Little, Malcolm X experienced a childhood marked by violence and poverty.
His father, Earl Little, is a Baptist preacher who advocates the "back-to-Africa" philosophy of black activist Marcus Garvey.
Once, their house is burned down, and another time it is damaged—both times by groups of white men.
The children are sent to various foster homes in the region.
Malcolm is expelled from school when he is thirteen years old, and state officials move him to a detention home.
Though Malcolm is a very popular student at the white junior high school and is elected the seventh-grade class president, he later feels that he was simply a "mascot" for the school.
Malcolm X Essay Homemade Education Psychology Literature Review Abstract
His half-sister Ella invites him to visit her in Boston for the summer, a visit that changes his life by showing him a world outside his small town.Muhammad expelled Malcolm X from the Nation, and Malcolm X began hearing that members of the Nation were planning his death.During a pilgrimage to Mecca soon after his expulsion, Malcolm X experienced a second conversion of sorts: he decided that the Islam he had practiced under Muhammad's tutelage was not the true Islam.Many considered Malcolm X's separatist philosophies (later softened) disturbing and in direct opposition to those of the period's other well-known black activists, including Martin Luther King, Jr., who argued for integration and nonviolent confrontation.While the book received high praise when it was first published in 1965, it immediately engendered questions about its authorship.Malcolm's enthusiasm for Islam as preached by Elijah Muhammad—who taught that white men were devils and that complete separation of the races was the only solution to racism in America—prompted his rise through the ranks of the Nation of Islam.He dropped his last name and replaced it with X to symbolize the identity and history that whites had stripped from blacks during slavery.In 1964, he established his own organization to minister to blacks of all faiths and another organization called the Organization of Afro-American Unity that planned to unite blacks all over the world against racism.In 1959, Alex Haley had written an article for Reader's Digest on Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam.The Nation of Islam is a religious and cultural organization founded in the early 1930s in Detroit by W. Fard and advocating Islam and economic self-determination for African Americans.Malcolm became a member of the Nation as soon as he was released from prison in 1952.