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In the best fitting model, the odds ratio (95% CI) of being a male CSO was 2.03 (1.24–3.31) for past-year gambling problems, 1.46 (1.08–1.97) for loneliness and 1.78 (1.38–2.29) for risky alcohol consumption.The odds ratio (95% CI) of being a female CSO was 1.51 (1.09–2.08) for past-year gambling involvement, 3.05 (1.18-7.90) for past-year gambling problems, 2.21 (1.24–3.93) for mental health problems, 1.39 (1.03–1.89) for loneliness and 1.97 (1.43–2.71) for daily smoking.However, problem gambling not only impacts those directly involved, but also a variety of their significant others [2–4].
Most commonly, the problem gambler was a close friend (12.4%) of the CSO.
The percentage of close friends having a gambling problem was larger among male CSOs (14.4%) compared with female CSOs (10.3%; p ≤ 0.001), while the percentage of partners with gambling problem was larger among females (2.6%) than among males (0.8%; p ≤ 0.001).
Problem gambling not only impacts those directly involved, but also the concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers.
The aims of this study were to investigate the proportion of male and female CSOs at the population level; to investigate who the CSOs were concerned about; and to investigate sociodemographic factors, gender differences, gambling behaviour, and health and well-being among CSOs and non-CSOs.
In Sweden, Svensson and colleagues  studied CSOs by using a somewhat wider and more open approach and identified 18.2% of the population as CSOs .
However, the Swedish study did not define how the CSOs were related to the person who was considered to have or to have had gambling problems.
The broadness of different definitions for CSOs varies: the CSOs of the person with gambling problems can be parents, spouses, a boyfriend/girlfriend, own children or any other family members or relatives, or more distant friends or colleagues .
It has been proposed that each gambler’s gambling problem has destructive effects on as many as 7 to 16 other people [10, 11].
Most compulsive gamblers will answer 'Yes' to at least 7 of these questions.
If you feel you might be a compulsive gambler, have a gambling problem or have a desire to stop gambling, you can speak to someone right now by clicking here Or click this link to find a Gamblers Anonymous meeting close to where you are.