One, because women are more likely to believe harassment complaints and less likely to respond negatively to training, in firms with more women managers, programs work better.Two, in firms with more women managers, harassment programs may activate group threat and backlash against some groups of women.A metaanalysis of campus field studies finds that it increases reported trainee efficacy, intention to intervene, and helping behavior (13).Tags: Cover Letter For Doctors Without BordersEssays About Immigration LawsCreative Writing Grading RubricEssay On Eid Ul Adha In UrduSome High School CourseworkPurposes Of Punishment EssayEssay On Bullying IntroductionImproving Creative Writing
The third prediction concerns employee training, which typically reviews harassment law, specifies verboten actions, and outlines complaint processes and punishments (16).
The message is that employees are potential perpetrators, not victims’ allies.
Training and grievance protocols were virtually unknown in 1980, but, by 1987, three-quarters of federal workers had completed training, and, by 1994, four-fifths knew how to file a grievance. When asked about six specific forms of harassment, 42% of women reported in both 19 that they had been harassed in the past 2 y. Much of the subsequent research also suggests that sexual harassment grievance procedures and training may be managerial snake oil. To assess whether harassment grievance procedures and training for managers and employees have reduced harassment we estimate the effects of these programs on the share of women in management.
Because it often causes women to leave their jobs (4, 7, 8), harassment should reduce women in management.
It treats trainees as victims’ allies, reviewing how to prevent harassment, recognize its signs, intervene to stop it, and use grievance processes (12).
“If you see something, say something” curriculum has been studied extensively among college students and military personnel.Programs that reduce harassment should increase women in management.We develop five predictions based on laboratory and field studies.We analyze data from 805 companies over 32 y to explore how new sexual harassment programs affect the representation of white, black, Hispanic, and Asian-American women in management. First, sexual harassment grievance procedures, shown in surveys to incite retaliation without satisfying complainants, are followed by decreases in women managers.Second, training for managers, which encourages managers to look for signs of trouble and intervene, is followed by increases in women managers.Four months out, Army trainees were more likely to report having intervened to stop sexual assault or stalking (15).We expect manager training to provide managers with tools to address harassment, and thus to be followed by increases in women in management.Training and grievance systems may appear to backfire because, by increasing recognition of harassment, they increase complaints (2, 3).Surveys may not pick up harassment in workplaces where it is common because rampant harassment can foster psychological denial (4).While harassment is hard to measure, and thus program effects are hard to gauge, some studies suggest that grievance procedures and training may not reduce harassment.Early evidence came from surveys of federal workers in 1980, 1987, and 1994.