The main purpose of this paper is to overview research investigating cultural changes in individualism and their ramifications in Japan. The first section offers a brief explanation of the theoretical/practical background of this paper and its implications.
Therefore, this article reviewed studies investigating temporal changes in individualism in Japan and their ramifications on psychology and behavior.
Japan has experienced rapid and dramatic economic growth and urbanization and has adopted more social systems based on individualistic concepts in various contexts (e.g., workplace, school).
The fifth section summarizes this paper, and the sixth section raises some future directions for the investigation of cultural change. doi: 10.1111/jasp.12409 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). Patterns of individualism and collectivism across the United States.
It is important to investigate cultural changes for at least four reasons. World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, CD-ROM Edition.
Therefore, understanding how cultures change over time can reveal one plausible reason for replication failures.
Fourth, societies at large can benefit from investigating cultural changes. Age and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: a cross-temporal meta-analysis. Temporal or historical analyses at the time (e.g., year, month) level can also find relationships between psychology/behavior and social/economic/ecological variables by focusing on variance at the group-level within a given timeframe (Ogihara, 2017a). Examples of these are given below (2-2; also see Ogihara, 2017a). Third, revealing cultural changes may benefit researchers with regards to replication. Changes in pronoun use in American books and the rise of individualism, 1960-2008. S., the amount of research examining cultural changes in Japan is relatively small. Culture gradually changes by interacting with its historical background, so the patterns of temporal change may differ across cultures (Inglehart and Baker, 2000). Many studies have shown that American culture has become more individualistic over time. However, it was unclear whether other cultures, especially East Asian cultures, have also shifted toward greater individualism. Recent studies have suggested that, along with these socioeconomic changes, Japanese culture has become more individualistic over time. doi: 10.1177/0022022111415407 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Yu, F., Peng, T., Peng, K., Tang, S., Chen, C. Specifically, the divorce rate increased and household size decreased. Second, investigating how and why cultures change over time can reveal how psychology and behavior are affected by social, economic, and ecological factors. doi: 10.1177/0022022112455100 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Twenge, J. This has been conducted at the individual and area (e.g., nation, state) levels (for reviews, see Oishi and Graham, 2010; Oishi, 2014).