Essay Urbanization

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While determining the outgrowth of a town, it has been ensured that it possesses the urban features in terms of infrastructure and amenities such as pucca roads, electricity, taps, drainage system for disposal of waste water etc. At the central level, nodal agencies which look after program and policies for urban development are Ministry of housing and urban poverty alleviation (Mo HUPA) and Ministry of Urban development. At state level there are respective ministries, but according to 74th Constitutional Amendment act,1992, it is mandatory for every state to form ULBs and devolve power, conduct regular election, etc.

educational institutions, post offices, medical facilities, banks etc. Under 12 schedule of Indian constitution , 18 such functions have been defined which are to be performed by ULBs and for that states should support the ULBs through finances and decentralization of power, for more autonomy.

Forth plan (1969-74), continued with the theme of third plan and development plans for 72 urban areas were undertaken.

Regional studies in respect of metropolitan regions around Delhi, Mumbai and Calcutta were initiated.

An Urban Agglomeration must consist of at least a statutory town and its total population (i.e.

all the constituents put together) should not be less than 20,000 as per the 2001 Census.

But it was not passed and was finally passed in 1992 as 74th constitutional amendment act and came into force in 1993.

During Eighth plan, the Mega city scheme was introduced in 1993-94 covering five mega cities of Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad.

Mumbai metropolitan region development authority (MMRDA) in 1974 and Housing and urban development cooperation in 1975 were established.

It also emphasized the urban and industrial decentralization.

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