ill-shaped noses”, protruding ears, and wrinkles (“the finger marks of Time”) in the English magazine World of Dress in 1901.
A report from a 1908 court case involving the company shows that they continued to use skin harvested from – and attached to – the arm for rhinoplasties.
At this time, racial science was concerned with “improving” the white race.
In the United States, with its growing populations of Jewish and Irish immigrants and African Americans, “pug” noses, large noses and flat noses were signs of racial difference and therefore ugliness. Gilman suggests that the “primitive” associations of non-white noses arose “because the too-flat nose came to be associated with the inherited syphilitic nose”.
Advertisements for the likes of the the Derma-Featural Co were rare in women’s magazines around the turn of the 20th century.
But ads were frequently published for bogus devices promising to deliver dramatic face and body changes that might reasonably be expected only from surgical intervention.
The frequency of these ads in popular magazines suggests that use of these devices was socially acceptable.
In comparison, coloured cosmetics such as rouge and kohl eyeliner were rarely advertised.
A section of skin would be cut from the forehead, folded down and stitched, or would be harvested from the patient’s arm.
A later representation of this procedure in Iconografia d’anatomia published in 1841, as reproduced in Richard Barnett’s Crucial Interventions, shows the patient with his raised arm still gruesomely attached to his face during the graft’s healing period.