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the jurisdictional boundaries of two or more agencies are often not reported in the most expeditious manner.
In authorizing and funding efforts to ensure the safety of the food supply, the government must balance the interests of diverse groups and allocate finite resources among competing needs.
The Delaney clause, which was included in the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act, directs that "no additive shall be deemed to be safe if it is found to induce cancer when ingested by man or animal, or if it is found, after tests which are appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animal." Faulty handling of a product at any point in the system can transform a safe product into one that can cause serious harm.
The broad introduction of refrigerated railcars and trucks, freezers, and air transport created a national and now global food Thus, the developments that have provided the American consumer with a wide array of food products have also introduced risks.
Government has attempted to address such developments by adding structures and processes without always considering their effects on other aspects of the system. For example, inspectors from multiple agencies oversee parallel and nearly identical processes in the same food processing facility.
Food safety problems that transcend The major federal agencies involved include: the Agricultural Marketing Service, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, the Agricultural Research Service, the Cooperative State Research.
Education and Extension Service, the Economic Research Service, the Food Safety and Inspection Service, and the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration of the United States Department of Agriculture; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration, and the National Institutes of Health of the Department of Health and Human Services; the National Marine Fisheries Service of the Department of Commerce; and the Environmental Protection Agency.
Food safety encompasses a wide spectrum of issues-not only the avoidance of foodborne pathogens, chemical toxicants, and physical hazards, but also issues such as nutrition, food quality, labeling, and education.
The system for regulating the food supply in the United States involves all levels of government from federal to local.
But the situation is not just haphazard; changes in risks have made the system outmoded.
The role and organization of government entities have remained largely unchanged, and the food safety system has fallen behind today's needs.