El Nino Essay

El Nino Essay-83
The effects that these events bring varies dramatically with the season and location (Met Office, 2012), however have all caused many deaths and economic losses over the years but hopefully with new prediction systems available, such as numerical models, these impacts should be reduced. (1969) Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific. El Niño and La Niña are opposite phases of a natural climate pattern across the tropical Pacific Ocean that swings back and forth every 3-7 years on average.The sea surface temperatures along the equator can fall as much as 7 degrees Fahrenheit below normal during a La Niña event.

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Conclusion To conclude, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation is natural cycle that is present within the equatorial Pacific Ocean and affects many people lives that live within the vicinity.

El Niño and La Niña can have some disastrous effects on the livelihoods of those who get in the way of there destructive paths because, they cause contrasting weather conditions that the locations are not prepared for.

La Niña events also trigger a lot of negative impacts on society with the 2011-2012 event producing severe storms and flooding in Western Australia. H., 2000, Currents of Change: Impacts of El Niño and La Niña on Climate and Society: Impacts of El Niño and La Niña on Climate and Society. Answers to La Niña frequently asked questions [online] Available at: _new_[Accessed on 15th November 2014] National Weather Service, Climate Prediction Centre, 2005, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) [online] Available at: CWlink/MJO/enso.shtml#educational material Philander, G.

Two tropical cyclones caused companies, such as Rio Tinto and Woodside, to lose revenue and the iron operations in the Pilbara were slowed due to transportation issues meaning they also had an economic loss (Vella, J., 2011). Chamberlin, S., 2008, Ocean & Atmosphere - El Niño, Walker Circulation. v=ZALEEwmwj P4 [Accessed on 15th November 2014] 4 Changnon, S. El Niño 1997-1998: The Climate Event of the Century.

This is due to the fact that the trade winds cause upwelling in the west and also because the SSTs in the west are warmer.

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The air rises over the west to form deep convective clouds causing intense convectional rainfall in the Indonesian Archipelago (Philander, G., 1998).Reduced rainfall over Indonesia lead to severe drought and forest fires across the country in the 1982-83 El Niño event, which means that fires now occur every year because the vegetation is so dry (Holden, J., 2012).Tropical storms in Chile and Peru caused heavy downpours and floods in the 1997-98 event, (Philander, G.Consequently rainfall is reduced over Indonesia and Malaysia, which often causes drought, but increased over the desert states of USA and northern Mexico, frequently causing flooding (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, n.d.).The average duration of the El Niño cycle is typically 12-18 2 As stated above, El Niño events generally occur every 3-4 years meaning that they have brought chaos to a lot of populations worldwide over the years.During a La Niña event, the normal climate patterns of an area are enhanced.For example, in areas that would normally experience a wet winter, e.g.1998) which did cause some damage, however had some positive impacts also. (Ed) (2012) An Introduction to Physical Geography and the Environment. Met Office, 2012, El Niño, La Niña and the Southern Oscillation [online] Available at: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2009. Available through: [Accessed on 11th November 2014] Ross, T., Lott, Neal., Mx Cown, S., Quinn, D., 1998. [Online] National Climatic Data Centre Technical Report No. Rice is one of the primary crops grown in Northern Peru and thrives on wet condition during the growing season, which meant that farmers yield in 199798 was very high and a lot of profit was made (National Weather Service, Climate Prediction Centre, 2005). La Niña Returns, NASA Watches Sea Surface Indicators [online] (last updated January 26th 2009) Available at: on: 15th November 2014] National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 1998. Bejerknes (1969) was the first person to realize that El Niño does not just affect the coastline of Peru, but the entire tropical Pacific Ocean (Holden, J., 2012).Consequently, the term El Niño is currently used to describe the sustained warming of the sea surface temperature concentrated in the central-east equatorial Pacific (Met Office, 2012).


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