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This means that when a force is applied to deform the shape, it stays deformed when the force is removed.Theyield strengthoryield pointof a materialis defined in engineering and material science as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically .
Also, precise strain measurements have shown that plastic strain begins at low stresses.The generalized Hooke’s Law can be used to predict the deformations caused in a given material by an arbitrary combination of stresses.The linear relationship between stress and strain applies for The generalized Hooke’s Law also reveals that strain can exist without stress.Mathematically, Hooke’s law states that Where, xis the displacement of the end of the spring from its equilibrium position; Fis the restoring force exerted by the material; and kis theforce constant(orspring constant).When no weight is applied to the spring, the strain is zero, And, we can measure its length,.Prior to the yield point the material will deform elastically and will return to its original shape when the applied stress is removed.Once the yield point is passed some fraction of the deformation will be permanent and non-reversible. This definition is rarely used, since dislocations move at very low stresses, and detecting such movement is very difficult.Thestress-straincurve is a graphical representation of the relationship betweenstress, derived from measuring the load applied on the sample, andstrain, derived from measuring thedeformationof the sample, i.e. The nature of the curve varies from material to material.The elastic limit is where the graph departs from a straight line.For example, if the member is experiencing a load in the y-direction (which in turn causes a stress in the y-direction), the Hooke’s Law shows that strain in the x-direction does not equal to zero.This is because as material is being pulled outward by the y-plane, the material in the x-plane moves inward to fill in the space once occupied, just like an elastic band becomes thinner as you try to pull it apart.