In a true ecosystem, producers are more than consumers (herbivores and carnivores).7.
in an ecosystem, which one shows one-way passage (a) free energy(b) carbon(c) nitrogen(d) potassium. (a): The behaviour of energy in ecosystem can be termed energy flow due to unidirectional flow of energy, Flow of energy is only in one direction i.e., from solar radiation — carnivores. There is decrease in the content and flow of energy with rise j in tropic level.8.
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Commensalism is the relationship between individuals of two species of which one is benefitted and the other is almost unaffected i.e.; neither benefitted nor harmed.6. (a) primary consumers are least dependent upon producers(b) primary consumers out-number producers(c) producers are more than primary consumers(d) secondary consumers are the largest and most powerful. (c): An ecosystem may be defined as a structural and functional unit of the biosphere comprising living organisms and their non-living environment that interact by means of food chains and chemical cycles resulting in energy flow, biotic diversity and material cycling to form a stable, self supporting system.
The organisms in an ecosystem are classified into 3 main categories-producers, consumers and decomposers.Fungi give support to the algae, give protection and help in absorption of water while algae provide food to fungi which is achlorophyllous.No one is harmed but both are benefitted by each other.11.Green house effect is warming due to (a) infra-red rays reaching earth(b) moisture layer in atmosphere(c) increase in temperature due to increase in carbon dioxide concentration of atmosphere(d) ozone layer of atmosphere. (c): The mean global temperature rise by 2° – 6°c and the concentration of carbon dioxide increases in the troposphere upto 600 ppm.Hence, the surface of the earth becomes warm which causes global warming.A mutually beneficial association necessary for survival of both partners is (a) mutualism/symbiosis(b) commensalism(c) amensalism(d) both A and B. (a): Mutualism is an association between individuals of two species, both of which are benefitted but cannot live separately under natural conditions e.g.instances of mutualism exist between animals and plants and also in between plants e.g. Ammensalism is an interaction in which one species causes harm to another spices with its toxic secretion often without gaining any benefit from the interaction.The regulation of water resources to prevent flood will help not only in soil conservation but also supply an adequate water supply in the period of drought.10.The relation between algae and fungi in lichen is (a) symbiosis(b) parasitism(c) commenalism(d) protocooperation. (a): Algae and fungi in a lichen show symbiotic relationship.Major aerosol pollutant in jet plane emission is (a) sulphur dioxide(b) carbon monoxide(c) methane(d) fluorocarbon. (d): Aerosols are chlorofluoro-hydrocarbon compounds released into air with force in the form of vapour.Main source of aerosols is the emission of jet planes, where fluorocarbons are used.